By Thankaraj JJ on December 6, 2022

What are NoSQL databases?

A database management strategy known as NoSQL is capable of working with a wide range of data models, including key-value, document, columnar, and graph formats. Typically, a NoSQL database is distributed, non-relational, flexible, and scalable. In contrast to the usual ACID (atomicity, consistency, isolation, and durability) transaction consistency of relational and SQL databases, the absence of a database schema, data clustering, support for replication, and eventual consistency are additional common features of NoSQL databases. Numerous NoSQL data set frameworks are additionally open source.

In the beginning, the use of the term “NoSQL” meant that SQL was not used as the API to access data. However, many NoSQL databases added SQL support due to its widespread use and utility. It is now common knowledge that the acronym “Not Only SQL” stands for “NoSQL.”

Types of NoSQL Databases

NoSQL database systems come in four common varieties. There are significant differences between each NoSQL type as a result of the distinct data models they employ.

Document Databases

A “document” is the central idea of a document store. Document-oriented databases all assume that documents encapsulate and encode data (or information) in some standard formats or encodings, although the specifics of this definition vary between them.XML, YAML, and JSON are common encodings, as are binary formats like BSON. In the database, each document is identified by a single key that identifies that document. An API or query language for retrieving documents based on their contents is another defining feature of a document-oriented database. Couchbase Server, MongoDB, MarkLogic are all examples of Document databases.

Different implementations offer different ways of organizing and/or grouping documents:

  • Collections
  • Tags
  • Non-visible metadata
  • Directory hierarchies

Graph databases

Nodes, which are similar to rows in a relational database, and edges, which represent connections between nodes, are how graph data stores organize data. Richer representations of data relationships are possible because the graph system stores the relationship between nodes. In addition, in contrast to relational models, which are predicated on rigid schemas, the graph data model is adaptable to use and time. Systems like reservation systems, social media platforms, and customer relationship management use graph databases to map relationships. AllegroGraph, IBM Graph, and Neo4j are all examples of graph databases.

Key features of graph database:

  • In a graph-based database, it is easy to identify the relationship between the data by using the links.
  • The Query’s output is real-time results.
  • The speed depends upon the number of relationships among the database elements.

Key-Value Stores

These systems, which are also known as key-value databases, use a straightforward data model to pair a unique key with an associated value. Applications that are both highly scalable and efficient can be developed with the help of this straightforward model. For session management and caching in web applications, such as managing online shoppers’ shopping cart details or managing gamers’ sessions in multiplayer games, key-value databases are ideal. The orientation of implementations to work with RAM, solid-state drives, or disk drives varies. Aerospike, DynamoDB, Redis, and Riak are all examples of well-known key-value databases.

A key-value store is like a relational database with only two columns which is the key and the value.

Key features of the key-value store:

  • Simplicity.
  • Scalability.
  • Speed.

Wide-Column Stores.

These data sets utilize natural tables, sections and lines like social data set tables, yet segment names and organizing can contrast from one column to another in a solitary table. Every section is likewise put away independently on a plate. Instead of customary line-orientated capacity, a wide-segment store is ideal while questioning information by sections. Run-of-the-mill applications where wide-segment stores can succeed incorporate proposal motors, inventories, misrepresentation discovery and occasion logging. Accumulo, Amazon SimpleDB, Cassandra, HBase and Hypertable are instances of wide-section stores.tores.

Columnar databases are designed to read data more efficiently and retrieve the data with greater speed. A columnar database is used to store a large amount of data. Key features of columnar oriented database:

  • Scalability.
  • Compression.
  • Very responsive.

Advantages of NoSQL:

  • NoSQL information bases work on application improvement, especially for intelligent constant web applications, for example, those utilizing a REST Programming interface and web administrations.
  • These data sets give adaptability to information that has not been standardized, which requires an adaptable information model, or has various properties for various information elements.
  • They offer adaptability for bigger informational collections, which are normal in examination and man-made reasoning (simulated intelligence) applications.
  • NoSQL information bases are more qualified for cloud, portable, online entertainment and enormous information necessities.
  • They are intended for explicit use cases and are more straightforward to use than broadly useful social or SQL data sets for applications like that.

Disadvantages of NoSQL:

  • Each NoSQL information base has its own grammar for questioning and overseeing information. This is as opposed to SQL, which is the most widely used language for social and SQL data set frameworks.
  • The absence of an unbending data set pattern and imperatives eliminates the information trustworthiness defense that is incorporated into social and SQL data set frameworks.
  • A mapping with some kind of design is expected to utilize the information. With NoSQL, this should be performed by the application designer rather than the information base head.
  • Since most NoSQL information bases utilize the possible consistency model, they don’t give a similar degree of information consistency as SQL data sets. On occasion, the information won’t be steady, and that implies they are not appropriate for exchanges that require quick honesty, like banking and ATM exchanges.
  • Since NoSQL data sets are fresher, there are no exhaustive industry principles as with social and SQL DBMS contributions.


At an undeniable level, SQL information bases are broadly useful, while NoSQL data sets are designed for explicit use cases. The essential distinctions between NoSQL and SQL can be summarized in the accompanying five classes: Programming interface, information model, pattern necessity, adaptability and information trustworthiness. Each conveys an alternate way to deal with these parts of information stockpiling and recovery.

When Should NoSQL be utilized:

  • When a huge amount of data needs to be stored and retrieved.
  • The relationship between the data you store is not that important
  • The data changes over time and is not structured.
  • Support of Constraints and Joins is not required at the database level
  • The data is growing continuously and you need to scale the database regularly to handle the data.


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